Friday, July 31, 2009

Sejarah Sabah dan Kaum Sabah

SABAH NEGERI DI BAWAH BAYU

Negeri Sabah terletak di bahagian utara Borneo, iaitu kira-kira pada garis lintang 30 42' ke utara dan garis bujur di antara 1150 20' hingga 1190 15' ke timur. Ia merupakan negeri yang kedua terbesar di Malaysia dengan keluasan kira-kira 73,620 kilometer persegi, bersempadan dengan Wilayah Kalimantan, Indonesia di sebelah selatan dan negeri Sarawak di sebelah barat-daya. Negeri Sabah dalam zaman penjajahan dikenali sebagai North Borneo [Borneo Utara]. Pada asalnya, nama 'Sabah' itu merupakan nama asli penduduk peribumi di Sabah bagi bahagian tertentu di pantai barat laut, khususnya yang telah digunakan secara rasmi pada tahun 1877 sempena penganugerahan gelaran Maharaja Sabah kepada Baron Gustave Von Overbeck (salah seorang pengarah syarikat British North Borneo Company) oleh Sultan Brunei, Abdul Momin (1852-85). Kawasan 'Sabah' ketika itu adalah merujuk kepada semua wilayah, sungai, daratan dan daerah yang terletak di dalam kawasan antara Teluk Kimanis di pantai barat laut Borneo dengan Sungai Sibuko di pantai timur. Di antara 21 Jun 1877 dan 22 Januari 1878, kawasan-kawasan tersebut telah disewakan kepada Syarikat Berpiagam Borneo Utara oleh Sultan Abdul Momin Brunei, Pengiran Temenggung Sahibul Bahar Brunei, dan Sultan Jamal Al-Alam Sulu. Istilah 'Sabah' ini secara beransur-ansur digunakan untuk merujuk kepada wilayah Borneo Utara tetapi istilah ini mula digunakan secara rasmi sejak mencapai kemerdekaan pada tahun 1963 melalui kemasukannya dalam Persekutuan Malaysia.Negeri Sabah terdiri daripada lima bahagan pentadbiran iaitu Tawau, Sandakan, Kudat, Pantai Barat dan Pedalaman.Bahagian-bahagian tersebut dibahagikan kepada daerah-daerah pentadbiran, iaitu sejumlah 23 buah daerah keseluruhannya diu Sabah. Kinabatangan merupakan daerah yang terbesar dengan keluasan 17,594 kilometer persegi. Manakala Kota Kinabalu adalah daerah yang terkecil sekali dengan keluasan 350 kilometerpersegi. Manakala bagi wilayah Sabah, menurut andaian setakat ini menyebut bahawa masyarakat manusia di Sabah pada awalnya adalah terdiri daripada beberapa suku etnik peribumi asli yang kemudiannya telah berubah menjadi sebuah masyarakat majmuk terutamanya ekoran daripada proses migrasi yang mula berlaku seawal-awalnya pada kurun masihi yang ke-10 lagi daripada Tanah Besar China, India, Kepulauan Philipina dan Sulu, Kepulauan Cocos dan Maluku, Indonesia dan lain-lain.
Mengikut bancian rasmi tahun 1980, penduduk negeri Sabah berjumlah kira-kira 1,002,698 orang. Masyarakat negeri ini terdiri 29 kumpulan suku etnik yang dikelaskan sebagai Bumiputra, 12 kumpulan etnik bukan Bumiputra; termasuk 6 kumpulan suku etnik Cina dan selebihnya adalah berketurunan Pakistan, India, Eropah, dan lain-lain. Pada amnya kumpulan-kumpulan etnik dan suku etnik tersebut biasanya digolongkan ke dalam tiga kumpulan etnik utama, iaitu Bumiputra Melayu-Islam, Bumiputra bukan Melayu, dan Cina. Tegasnya, sehingga kini masih tidak ada bukti secara nyata tentang kewujudan satu etnik asli di Sabah.Penduduk peribumi asli Sabah (Borneo Utara) menurut klasifikasi awal yang diberikan oleh Syarikat Berpiagam Borneo Utara terdiri daripada kaum Dusun, Murut, Bisaya, Orang Sungai, Kwijau, Kedayaan, Idahan, Bajau, Brunei, Dayak, Suluk, dan lain-lain. Dusun dan Murut merupakan dua kumpulan kaum yang terbesar bilangannya. Mereka mewaikili lebih kurang 50 peratus daripada jumlah penduduk Sabah dalam kurun masehi ke-19. Pada keseluruhannya penduduk peribumi merangkumi lebih kurang 80 peratus daripada penduduk Borneo Utara ketika itu. Namun peratusan ini mula merosot sekitar akhir kurun masehi ke-19, khususnya setelah kemasukan kaum pendatang seperti Cina sejak tahun 1887. Pihak penjajah terus menerus mengambil pekerja-pekerja upahan dari luar mengakibatkan berlakunya kemasukan beramai-ramai tanpa sekatan kemudian, terutamanya daripada Kalimantan dan Filipina.

Sebagai Rujukan
Bajau, West Coast

[bdr] 40,000 (1982). Kuala Penyu to Kudat, northern and some eastern areas, west coast of Sabah. Alternate names: Land Bajaw, West Coast Bajao. Dialects: Kota Belud, Kawang, Putatan, Papar, Banggi, Sandakan Bajau, Pitas Bajau. Diversified in structure more than other Borneo languages. Related to, but a distinct language from Sama (East Coast Bajau) groups of Malaysia and Philippines, and Indonesian Bajau (K. Pallesen 1977). 60% intelligibility of Sama. Papar dialect used in national broadcasting. May be more than one language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw


Balangingi
[sse] 30,000 in Malaysia (1977 SIL). Population includes all East Coast Bajau (Sama), including Kagayan (Sama Mapun) and Southern Sama. East coast of Sabah. Alternate names: Balangingi Bajau, Baangingi', Northern Sinama, Balanian, Balagnini, Balanini, Balignini, Binadan, Banadan, Sama. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama


Banjar
[bjn] 900,000 in Malaysia (1993). Tawau. Alternate names: Banjarese, Bandjarese, Banjar Malay. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay

Bisaya, Sabah
[bsy] 15,822 (2000 WCD). On the coast north of and around Brunei Bay, mainly in west Beaufort along Padas River, south of Weston, and south Kuala Penyu District to coast. Alternate names: Basaya, Besaya, Bisaia, Bisayah, Jilama Bawang, Jilama Sungai. Dialects: 90% intelligibility of Tatana. Lexical similarity 58% with Sarawak Bisaya, 57% to 59% with Brunei Bisaya ('Dusun'). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya

Dusun, Central
[dtp] 140,500 (1991 SIL). Population includes 50,000 Ranau (1989 UBS), 70,000 Bundu (1990 UBS), 500 (?) Kuala Monsok Dusun (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Beaufort, Kota Belud, Kota Kinabalu, Kota Marudu, Kinabatangan, Keningau, Labuk-Sugut, Penampang, Papar, Ranau, Tambunan, Tenom, Tuaran, and Tawau districts. Alternate names: Dusun, Dusan, Dusum, Dusur, Kadayan, Kedayan, Kadasan, Central Kadazan. Dialects: Dusun Sinulihan (Sinulihan), Kadazan-Tagaro (Tagaro), Kiundu, Pahu', Sokid, Tindal, Menggatal (Kiulu, Telipok), Ranau, Bundu (Taginambur), Beaufort, Luba, Kuala Monsok Dusun. Ranau dialect is different from Ranau in Sumatra, Indonesia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central


Dusun, Sugut
[kzs] 12,225 (2000 WCD). Headwaters of the Sugut River, Labuk-Sugut District. Alternate names: Dusun, Sugut, Sugut Kadazan, Kadayan, Tanggal, Tilau-Ilau. Dialects: Tinagas, Talantang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central


Dusun, Tambunan
[kzt] 15,553 (2000 WCD). Throughout Tambunan District and parts of Keningau. Alternate names: Tambunan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

Dusun, Tempasuk
[tdu] 6,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Area around Tempasuk village, Kota Belud. Alternate names: Tindal, Kedamaian Dusun, Tampasuk, Tampassuk, Tampasok, Tempasok. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

Gana
[gnq] 2,000 (1985 SIL). Minusut and Kuangoh, Keningau District along the Baiaya River, a tributary of the Pegalan River, north of Keningau town. Alternate names: Ganaq, Gana', Minansut, Keningau Dusun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Ida'an
[dbj] 6,000 (1987 SIL). Population includes 1,500 Begahak. East coast of Sabah, Lahad Datu, Kinabatangan, and Sandakan districts. Alternate names: Eraans, Bulud Upi, Idaan, Idahan, Idan, Idayan. Dialects: Begak (Begahak, Bagahak), Subpan (Supan, Sungai), Ida'an. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Ida'an


Iranun
[ill] 12,000 (2003). 17 villages around Lahad Datu and Kota Belud districts; also reported to be in Kudat and Marudu. Alternate names: "Ilanun", Illanun, Illanoan, Illanoon, Iranon Maranao, Iranum, Lanoon, Ylanos, Lanun, Illanos. Dialects: Most closely related to Maranao of the Philippines (85% intelligibility). Related to, but distinct from, Iranun and Maguindanao of the Philippines. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon

Kadazan, Coastal
[kzj] 60,000 (1986 SIL). West coast of Sabah, Penampang, and Papar districts. Alternate names: Penampang Kadazan, Papar Kadazan, Membakut Kadazan, Kadazan Tangaa'. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Kadazan, Klias River
[kqt] 1,000 (1984 SIL). Klias River area, Beaufort District. Dialects: Low intelligibility of Coastal Kadazan. Lexical similarity 77% with Tatana. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Kadazan, Labuk-Kinabatangan
[dtb] 20,583 (2000 SIL). Population includes 14,000 to 16,000 Labuk (1987 SIL), 7,000 to 8,000 Sungai (1982 SIL). Northeast Sabah, Sandakan, Labuk-Sugut, and Kinabatangan districts. Alternate names: Eastern Kadazan, Labuk Kadazan, Sogilitan, Tindakon, Tompulung. Dialects: Mangkaak (Mangkahak, Mangkok, Mangkak), Sukang, Labuk, Lamag Sungai (Sungei). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Eastern

Kalabakan
[kve] 2,229 (2000 WCD). Tawau District along the Kalabakan River. Alternate names: Kalabakan Murut, Tawau Murut, Tidung. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong

Keningau Murut

[kxi] 7,001 (2000 WCD). Population includes 1,000 to 1,200 Dusun Murut (1985 SIL). All Murut in Sabah 34,282 (1980 census). Keningau District within a 10-mile radius to the north of Keningau town along the Pegalan River. Alternate names: Central Murut. Dialects: Nabay (Nabai, Nebee, Dabay, Dabai, Rabay, Rabai), Ambual, Dusun Murut. Close to Bookan and Timugon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

Kimaragang
[kqr] 10,000 (1987 SIL). Population includes 6,000 Tandek, 2,000 Sonsogon. Kota Marudu and Pitas districts. Alternate names: Kimaragan, Kimaragangan, Maragang, Marigang. Dialects: Tandek (Garo), Pitas Kimaragang, Sandayo, Sonsogon. Dandun is somewhat different. Intelligibility of Sandayo with other dialects needs testing. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun
Kinabatangan, Upper[dmg] 7,856 (2000 WCD). Population includes 500 Dusun Segama and 800 to 900 Sinabu' (1985 SIL). Primarily the upper reaches of the Kinabatangan River, also Lahad Datu and Sandakan districts, Maligatan, Minusu, and Tongud. Dialects: Kalabuan (Kolobuan), Makiang, Dusun Segama (Saga-I, Soghai, Segai), Sinabu' (Sinabu). Dialects have approximately 87% intelligibility between them. Lexical similarity over 90% among all dialects, except Makiang and Sinabu' with 80%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan


Kota Marudu Talantang
[grm] 1,797 (2000 WCD). Kota Marudu District, in Talantang 1 and Talantang 2. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Kota Marudu Tinagas
[ktr] 1,250 (1985 SIL). Southern Kota Marudu and Parong, a migrant village in northern Kota Marudu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

Kuijau
[dkr] 7,910 (2000 WCD). Keningau District to the west and north of Keningau town within a 12-mile radius. Alternate names: Kijau, Kujau, Kwijau, Minansut, Kuliow, Kuiyow, Kuriyo, Koijoe, Menindal, Tindal, Menindaq, Tidung, Hill Dusun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Lobu, Lanas
[ruu] 2,800 (1986 SIL). Population includes 2,000 in Lobu, 800 in Rumanau. Lobu in Keningau District near Lanas, Rumanau in Masaum, Mangkawagu, Minusu, Kinabatangan District. Dialects: Lobu, Rumanau (Rumanau Alab, Romanau, Roomarrows). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan

Lobu, Tampias
[low] 1,800 (1985 SIL). 3 villages in Ranau around Tampias. Dialects: High intelligibility of Upper Kinabatangan. Lexical similarity 73% with Lanas Lobu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan

Lotud
[dtr] 5,000 (1985 SIL). Tuaran District, just north of Kota Kinabalu, a 10-mile radius around Tuaran town. Alternate names: Latod, Latud, Suang Lotud, Tuaran Dusun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Minokok
[mqq] 2,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Headwaters of Kinabatangan River. Dialects: Closest to Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan and Kimaragang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central


Paluan
[plz] 3,677 (2000 WCD). Population includes 3,000 Paluan, 1,000 to 2,000 Pandewan. Sabah, Tenom, Keningau, and Pensiangan districts along some tributaries of the Padas River, and along the Dalit, Keramatoi, Nabawan, Pamentarian, and Mesopo rivers, and the lower Sook River valley, and the headwaters of the Talankai and Sapulut rivers. Dialects: Paluan (Peluan), Dalit Murut, Sook Murut, Takapan, Makaheeliga (Makialiga), Pandewan (Pandewan Murut). Closest to Tagal Murut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

Rungus
[drg] 15,000 (1991 UBS). Kudat, Pitas, and Labuk-Sugut districts. Alternate names: Dusun Dayak, Melobong Rungus, Memagun, Memogun, Momogun, Roongas, Rungus Dusun. Dialects: Nulu, Gonsomon, Rungus. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Sama, Central
[sml] Southeastern Sabah, especially Semporna District. Alternate names: Siasi Sama, Central Sinama, Samal, Sinama. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama

Sama, Southern
[ssb] 20,000 in Malaysia. East, north, and west coasts: Banggi, Kota Belud, Gaya Island, Kuala Penyu. Alternate names: Sama Sibutu', Southern Bajau. Dialects: Bajau Banaran, Bajau Darat, Bajau Laut (Mandelaut, Pala'au, Sama Laut, Sama Mandelaut, Sama Pala'au, Sea Bajau, Sea Gypsies), Bajau Semporna (Bajau Asli, Kubang, Sama Kubang), Laminusa (Laminusa Sinama), Sibutu (Sibutuq, Sama Sibutu, Samah-Samah, Samah Lumbuh), Simunul (Sama Simunul), Sikubung (Kubung, Sama Kubung), Sama (A'a Sama, Sama', Samah, Samal, Samar), Ubian (Obian, Sama Ubian, Tau Ubian). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama

Selungai Murut
[slg] 373 in Malaysia (2000 WCD). Pensiangan District, 1 village, along the Sapulut River from the confluence with the Pensiangan River south to the Indonesian border. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut



Sembakung Murut
[sbr] 6,666 in Malaysia (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 9,847. Along the Sembakung River in northern Kalimantan, Indonesia, from the mouth upstream possibly as far as Sabah. Also spoken in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Tinggalan, Tinggalum, Tingalun, Simbakong, Sembakoeng, Sembakong, Tidong, Tidoeng, Tidung. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong


Serudung Murut
[srk] 1,000 (1989 SIL). Tawau District along the Serudung River and one village 12 miles from Tawau town. Alternate names: Serudong, Tawau Murut, Tidung. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong


Tagal Murut
[mvv] 46,054 in Malaysia (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 48,054. Pensiangan, Keningau, Tenom, Sipitang districts over the whole southwestern portion of Sabah, south into Kalimantan, Indonesia. Also spoken in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Dialects: Rundum (Arundum), Tagal (Taggal, Tagul, Tagol, North Borneo Murut, Sabah Murut), Sumambu (Semembu, Semambu, Sumambuq), Tolokoson (Telekoson), Sapulot Murut (Sapulut Murut), Pensiangan Murut (Pentjangan, Lagunan Murut), Salalir (Sadalir, Sedálir, Saralir), Alumbis (Lumbis, Loembis), Tawan, Tomani (Tumaniq), Maligan (Mauligan, Meligan, Bol Murut, Bole Murut). Closest to Paluan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut


Tatana
[txx] 5,500 (1982 SIL). Kuala Penyu District. Alternate names: Tatana', Tatanaq. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya
Tebilung
[tgb] 2,000 (1984 SIL). Kota Marudu District, on the road from Kota Belud to Kudat, and in Kota Belud. Alternate names: Tabilong, Tobilang, Tobilung. Dialects: Low intelligibility of Central Kadazan, Kimaragang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Tidong
[tid] 9,800 in Malaysia (1982 SIL). Sabah, Labuk-Sugut, Sandakan, and Tawau districts. Population center is along northeast coast of Kalimantan, Indonesia. Alternate names: Camucones, Nonukan, Tedong, Tidoeng, Tiran, Tirones, Tiroon, Zedong. Dialects: Tarakan (Terakan), Sesayap (Sesajap). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong

Timugon Murut
[tih] 12,098 (2000 WCD). Population includes 1,200 to 1,700 in Beaufort Murut (1982 SIL). Tenom District along the Padas River from Melalap to Batu, and Beaufort District along the Bukau and lower Padas rivers. Alternate names: Timugon, Timogun, Timigan, Timigun, Timogon, Tumugun, Temogun, Tenom Murut. Dialects: Kapagalan, Poros, Beaufort Murut (Binta'), Timugon, Sandiwar (Sandewar), Dabugus, Lower Murut, Murut Padas, Bukau (Bukow). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

Tombonuwo
[txa] 20,000 (1991 UBS). Population includes 3,000 Lingkabau. Labuk-Sugut, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts. Alternate names: Tombonuo, Tombonuva, Tambanuo, Tambanua, Tambanuva, Tambanwas, Tambenua, Tambunwas, Tembenua, Tunbumohas, Tumbunwha, Paitan, Sungai, Sungei, Lobu. Dialects: Lingkabau Sugut (Linkabau). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Paitanic

1 comment:

  1. :) woo...im so interesting to know about kadazan..

    ReplyDelete